Anorexia nervosa is a severe emotional eating disorder that involves an obsession with food, weight, and body image. Anorexics go to extreme measures to starve themselves or exercise excessively to prevent weight gain. Often, anorexia nervosa is not really about food. It is a psychological condition that manifests in an unhealthy and dangerous way to cope with emotional problems, and issues of control and perfectionism. Females suffer from anorexia nervosa more often than males.
Symptoms of Anorexia Nervosa
People with anorexia have a skewed vision of their own body and often think they are overweight when they in reality may be underweight. They may have an intense fear of gaining weight and go to extreme measures to remain what they perceive as slim. Many anorexics alter or control calorie intake by causing themselves to vomit after eating. Additional symptoms of anorexia may include:
- Extreme weight loss
- Refusal to eat
- Denial of hunger
- Eating very small amounts of only certain foods
- Thinning or breaking hair
- Development of more body hair
- Absence of menstrual cycle
- Preoccupation with food
- Excessive exercise
- Dry skin
- Social withdrawal
People with anorexia may also have other psychiatric conditions, including depression, anxiety, or obsessive behavior. Anorexics may also have substance abuse problems, especially stimulants, laxatives, or diet aids.
Causes of Anorexia Nervosa
The cause of anorexia is not known, but it is likely a combination of biological, psychological, environmental, and cultural factors. Media and peer pressure can often influence an extreme desire to be thin, especially in young girls. Life changes or stressful events may lead to anorexia, and mental conditions such as depression or anxiety may also be a factor in developing the condition.
Diagnosis of Anorexia Nervosa
If this condition is suspected, the doctor will perform a complete physical examination and additional diagnostic tests to rule out any other underlying conditions. Tests may be performed before the treatment of anorexia nervosa to check electrolyte and protein levels as well as liver and kidney function and may include:
- Blood tests
In addition, a complete psychological evaluation will be conducted, and the patient will be asked about thoughts, feelings, and eating habits.
Treatment of Anorexia Nervosa
The goal of anorexia nervosa treatment is to get the patient back to a healthy weight. If the patient's life is in danger, they may be admitted to a hospital. In severe cases, people with anorexia may initially require a feeding tube to deliver nutrients to their bodies. Treatment for anorexia nervosa often involves a team of health professionals, including doctors, nutritionists, psychiatrists, and therapists. Medical treatment may be administered if the body has become damaged by the condition. Nutritional counseling can help the patient develop healthy eating patterns, and psychological counseling can help address mental health issues. Anorexia often requires long-term treatment to prevent relapses and may be a life-long process
It is critical for patients with anorexia nervosa to seek treatment before the condition worsens. Untreated anorexia can lead to anemia, bone loss, heart, kidney, lung problems, and death.